1. Brining could be bad for a person on a sodium-restricted diet for medical reasons.
If it's a self-imposed low-sodium diet as part of a lifestyle choice (like veganism), then the occasional brining probably wouldn't hurt.
2. Brining is really only used for poultry and pork. You can alter your cooking methods and/or use a marinade like Andy M. suggested. For example: instead of pan frying pork chops, or searing and placing in an oven to "bake" until done - try searing and brasing.
3. Don't understand the question really. Compare several Falafel Recipes
and see if one strikes your fancy. If your traditional alternative is a recipe for not deep frying them, then here are some Baked Falafel Recipes
4. You could try it and see how it comes out - but I've never had a problem using a conventional oven. I know a couple of pastry chefs and they use a conventional oven.
5. Yep, hold the tofu and add about a pound of ground cow!
(sorry - just couldn't resist that one) Like any other "ultimate" recipe it just takes comparing recipes, making adjustments that sound good to you, and then going a little experimenting. Here are some Vegan Veggie Burger Recipes
6. Nope - but, you're not the first guy from Jersey to be on a quest for the recipe. I'm not going to advertise his site, but if you Google on "Dunkin Donuts Harvest bagel recipe" you'll find it.
7. Natural and Collagen casings are derived from animal sources. Fibrous, Cellulose, most
Synthetic, Muslin and Plastic would fit your vegan requirement. Some are edible - some are not, and they have different uses. You'll just have to shop around
and see what will fit your requirements.