we have had many cats over the years, and not one has ever damaged any furniture by clawing it.
we've always made sure to have one or two large sisal scratching posts available on each floor of our house, but the secret was dw's excellent feline behaviour training.
any time she saw one of our cats go near a piece of furniture about to claw it, she would come running and screeching at the top of her lungs for them to stop. often, it was loud and piercing enough to be heard in 3 states. she then showed them what to do by scratching on the sisal posts instead of any furniture.
after that, no cat, nor human, nor any creature living or dead would ever risk having to hear that sound again, so our furniture has always been safe.
not so much my ear drums, though.