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Old 03-01-2005, 10:22 AM   #1
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Knife Skills

I found this site on how to chop different vegetables and herbs. I just sort of glanced at it, but it seems like there is some good info in here that some of you might enjoy.

Knife Skills

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Old 03-07-2005, 08:49 PM   #2
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French Cooking Terms and Thank you!

Oh great new guru of DC! I hope this forum is loads of fun for all, and a place to learn and share!

To start this off, I just found a great site of French cooking terms - enjoy!

http://www.cafecreosote.com/dictionary.php3

Hope I did this right!
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Old 03-07-2005, 11:55 PM   #3
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Charts, Links and other Reference

Here's a listing of cooking terms that I've accumulated over the years. I keep this for reference.

Al Denté: pasta cooked “to the tooth”, an expression meaning that the pasta is still firm in the center.

Au sec: French term that means “almost dry”, used in reducing liquids in a pan until there is barely any left.

Bake: to cook an item by surrounding it with hot air, usually applied to breads, pastries, vegetables, and fish.

Barding: tying pieces of fat (i.e. fatback, bacon, etc.) over or around a piece of meat with little or no natural fat cover to protect it while cooking.

Batonnet: to cut into a long, thin, shape, ¼ x ¼ x 2 ½”.

Blanch: to briefly cook items in liquid, usually water but sometimes oil, to parcook the food item.

Boil: to cook in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly and is greatly agitated, 212°F (100°C) at sea level.

Bouquet garni: a term generally used for a sachet that contains no spices, just herbs and aromatic vegetables, usually tied into a bundle.

Braise: to cook an item is a small amount of liquid, usually after browning it first.

Break: usually applied to a sauce or emulsification, meaning that it the fat has separated from the liquid.

Broil: to cook with radiant heat from above.

Brunoise: 1/8” dice.

Chiffonade: to cut leafy herbs and leafy greens, by stacking in a pile and rolling into a cigar shape, then slicing as thinly as possible.

Chop: to cut into irregular shaped pieces.

Chow: to stir-fry, Chinese style.

Dice: to cut into a cube shape.

En Papillote: to cook a food, wrapped tightly in paper or parchment, so that it actually steams in it’s own vapor.

Deep-fry: to cook a food submerged in hot fat.

Deglaze: to swirl a liquid in a saute pan, roasting pan, or other pan to dissolve cooked particles (fond) remaining on the bottom of the pan.

Fond: cooked particles or liquids coating the inside of a pan in a “glaze”.

Glaze: to give shine to the surface of a food by applying a sauce, aspic, sugar, or icing, and/or by browning or melting under a broiler or in an oven.

Grill: to cook with dry heat from below, on a grid.

Griddle: to cook with dry heat from below, on a large solid metal surface.

Julienne: to cut into a long, thin, shape, 1/8 x 1/8 x 2 ½”.

Larding: inserting strips of fat with a larding needle into meats with little or no marbling.

Marinate: to immerse a food item into a seasoned liquid to allow the liquid to penetrate and flavor the food.

Mince: to cut into very fine pieces.

Mirepoix: a 1:1:2 mixture of chopped celery, onions, and carrots, respectively.

Napé: a liquid thickened just enough to cover the back of a spoon.

Pan-broil: same as griddling, except done is a pan.

Pan-fry: to cook in a moderate amount of fat.

Parcook: to briefly cook a food item, for some purpose, to either help in preparation, or to reduce a cooking time later.

Parboil: to partially cook an item in a boiling or simmering liquid.

PDC: abbreviation that stands for “Peeled, Deveined, and Cooked”, usually used for shrimp.

Poach: to cook in a liquid, usually a small amount, that is hot but not actually bubbling, 160 - 180°F (71 - 82°C).

Pomme-frite (French Fry): 1/3 - ½” square x 3” long.

Pressure-frying: to deep-fry an item in a specially designed covered fryer that will trap the steam and hold it under pressure.

Reduce: to cook by simmering or boiling until the quantity of liquid is decreased, often to concentrate flavors.

Roast: to cook an item by surrounding it with hot air, applied to meats and pouTRFy.

Sachet: a small bundle of whole herbs and spices, tied loosely into a piece of cheesecloth.

Saute: to cook quickly in a small amount of fat.

Sear: to brown the surface of a food quickly at a high temperature.

Simmer: to cook in a liquid that is bubbling very gently, 185 - 205°F (85 - 96°C).

Steam: to cook food by exposing it to direct contact with steam, either in a pressurized steamer, or over a kettle of boiling water.

Stew: to simmer a food or foods in a small amount of liquid, which is usually served with the food as a sauce.

Sweat: to cook slowly in fat without browning, sometimes under a cover.

Foreign names of foods:
Béchamel: classic white sauce, based on milk that has been seasoned and thickened.

Beurre manie: a mixture of cold butter and flour, uncooked, used to thicken a sauce.

Bisque: a thickened soup made from shellfish.

Broth: flavorful liquid obtained by simmer meats and/or vegetables. This is different from a stock, in that a stock uses bones.

Cellophane noodles: made from mung beans. A.k.a. glass noodles, Sai Fun, or bean threads.

Chile garlic sauce: hot Chinese condiment made from red chiles and garlic.

Chile sauce: bottled condiment, find near catsup in the grocery store.

Chung choy or Preserved Turnip: used in soups or steamed dishes. Available in sheets or balls. Use 1 ½ oz of the sheet for one ball. Needs to be rinsed before using.

Compound butter: butter that has been softened, with flavorings and seasonings added, then formed and chilled.

Consommé: a rich, flavorful stock or broth that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent.

Demi-glace or Demi-glaze: classic sauce of half Espagnole and half brown stock, reduced by half. In modern times, it’s usually a well-flavored brown stock that is reduced by half.

Dow See: Chinese fermented black beans.

Emulsion: a mixture of liquid fat and water-based liquid, bound together by egg to prevent it from breaking.

Espagnole: thickened brown stock.

Fines Herbs: a blend of parsley, chervil, tarragon, and chives. Very mild, used in French cuisine.

Fond Lié: brown stock thickened with cornstarch.

Galangal: young, mild, gingerroot.

Glace or Glaze: a stock that is reduced to Napé, or until it coats the back of a spoon, usually reducing by ¾ or more. It will be solid and rubbery when refrigerated.

Glace de Poisson: a glace made from fish stock

Glace de Viande: a glace made from brown stock.

Glace de Volaille: a glace made from chicken stock.

Gumbo Filé: ground sassafras leaves, a.k.a. Filé or Filé powder.

Hoisin sauce: soy/pepper condiment common in Chinese recipes. Find in the International section of a grocery store.

Herbs de Provence: a blend of basil, thyme, rosemary, oregano, sage, and marjoram.

Hollandaise: classic butter/egg sauce, usually used for vegetables and breakfast foods.

Jaggery: Palm sugar, usually found in a pressed cake. Available in Asian grocery stores.

Kaoliang: grain liquor from China.

Lace Fat or Caul Fat: peritoneum or abdominal lining of a pig. Special order from a butcher. An excellent wrapper for fried foods that almost disappears during cooking, but leaves a great flavor and crunch.

Lot Mein See: hot bean sauce.
Mein See or Miso: chinese condiment, the remains of making soy sauce.

Oyster Sauce: chinese cooking sauce, made from oysters, but no fishy taste.

Pesto: a sauce from Italy, pureed basil, garlic, cheese, and pine nut or walnuts, emulsified in olive oil.

Rendered chicken fat: use the skins and/or fat from the body cavity of a chicken. Cook the fat until the pieces are crisp and dry (just like making lard). Strain and store in the fridge. Use for Chinese dishes.

Roux: a mixture of equal part by weight of flour and fat. It should be stiff, not pourable or runny. You can make a roux in a pan using fat from the cooking process, but it probably won’t be as stiff.

Star Anise or Bot Gok: a licorice-like spice that resembles an eight-pointed star about ¾” in diameter.

Stock: flavorful liquid obtained by simmering bones and vegetables.

Slurry: a mixture of water and cornstarch.

Tahini: a paste made from sesame seeds and sesame oil. Used in mid-east cuisine.

Tofu: a.k.a. bean curd. Available in the produce section of a grocery store. Looks like a soft, white cheese.

Velouté: “White Stock” (chicken, veal, or uncaramelized pork stock), that has been thickened a bit. When properly seasoned, that can be used as a basic gravy.

Whitewash: a thin mixture of flour and water.

Zaartar: a blend of sumac bark, thyme, and chick-peas (garbanzo beans) or sesame seeds, common in mid-east foods.
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Old 03-08-2005, 03:41 AM   #4
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*Hugs his edition of Larousse Gastronomique*

Ahh how I love this book, anything I ever wanted to know...ever.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:04 AM   #5
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Smile Roasted vegetable chart from marmalady

marmalady posted a great chart for roasting vegetables in the Vegetables and Vegetarians forum on 10-11-2004. Now that we have a Terms and Techniques thread I think it deserves a "bump" so I'm quoting it here. Thanks marmalady!

Quote:
Originally Posted by marmalady in the Vegetables and Vegetarians forum on 10-11-2004, 07:35 PM
Vilasman's topic on roasting fennel reminded me I have this cooking time chart for roasted veg - I would love everyone to try some of the more 'unusual' veg to roast, like broccoli and cauliflower (especially cauliflower, even if you hate it!) - roasting at a high heat brings the sugars out and totally transforms veggies - even brussel sprouts! :)

This is from Roseanne Gold's book on roasting; although she recommends roasting at 500 degrees F !! - most of the time I'm happy with the results at 425 or 450.

ROASTED VEGETABLE TIMES AND TIPS

- Add dry herbs and seasonings along with oil before roasting.
- Add fresh herbs the last 10-15 minutes.
- After roasting, a small amount of vinegar, stock, fruit juice, cream, yogurt or butter can be added to make a moister serving.
- Seasonings such as Worchestershire or hot pepper sauce should be stirred in after roasting.

Pan sizes:
4 cups veggies - 12x8 pan 8 cups veggies - 14x12 pan 12 cups veggies- 18x13 pan

Cooking times:

30 MINUTES
Small beets
Parsnips
Cherry tomatoes
Potato wedges
Fennel
Whole large shallots
Garlic
Sweet potato wedge
Leeks cut in 1 inch
Turnip wedges
Onion wedges
Parsnips
Zucchini halves
Carrot chunks
Eggplant
Endive/chicory

20 MINUTES
Tomatoes
Trevisio
Zucchini chunks
Shallots,whole,med.

15 MINUTES
Broccoli
Mushrooms
Jerusalem artichokes
Italian fry peppers
1-2in.square bell pepper
Cauliflower

11 MINUTES
Asparagus
Scallions
The original link is here Roasted veggie chart
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:24 AM   #6
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Canning Basics

http://www.homecanning.com/usa/ALBasics.asp
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:25 AM   #7
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USDA's Complete Guide to Home Canning

http://foodsafety.cas.psu.edu/canningguide.html
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:30 AM   #8
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Beef charts

http://www.alliedkenco.com/data/charts/chart_beef.htm
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:38 AM   #9
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Meat cooking Temperature Chart

MEAT-COOKING TEMPERATURE CHART





Meat-Cooking Temperature Chart



Meat

Fahrenheit

Celsius

Beef:

Rare

120° - 125°

45° - 50°

Medium-Rare

130° - 135°

55° - 60°

Medium

140° - 145°

60° - 65°

Medium-Well

150° - 155°

65° - 70°

Well Done

160° and above

70° and above

Lamb:

Rare

135°

60°

Medium-rare

140° - 150°

60° - 65°

Medium

160°

70°

Well done

165° and above

75° and above

Poultry:

Chicken

165° - 175°

75° - 80°

Turkey

165° - 175°

75° - 80°

Pork:

Fresh Pork

160° - 170°

65° - 70°

Ham (Fully-Cooked)

140°

60°

Ham (Uncooked)

160°

70°


Note: All Celsius figures are rounded off to the nearest tenth.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:39 AM   #10
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Meat grilling chart

MEAT GRILLING CHARTS

These charts are for outdoor cooking on a gas or charcoal grill. Make sure that chicken, hamburgers, and seafood are fully cooked before serving. Steaks can be cooked to any desired doneness. Pork and lamb products should be cooked until the interior is pink. MEAT GRILLING TIMES
BONELESS STEAK Marinate if desired. Steak should be 1/2 - 1" thick. Grill for 8 - 14 minutes for medium rare, 12 - 18 minutes for medium, turning once.
BONE-IN STEAK Marinate if desired. Steak should be 1/2 - 1" thick. Grill for 7 - 14 minutes for medium rare, 11 - 18 minutes for medium, turning once.
CHICKEN BREASTS Boneless products cook more evenly. Chicken breasts can be cooked as is, or pounded thin for quicker cooking time. Grill until thoroughly done and juices run clear, about 8 - 12 minutes, turning once.
FISH FILLETS Cook until fillets flake easily when tested with a fork. Grill for 4 - 6 minutes per 1/2" of thickness, turning once.
FISH STEAKS Tuna, salmon, halibut, swordfish steaks should be 1/2 - 1" thick. Marinate before cooking if desired. Grill for 4 - 6 minutes for each 1/2" thickness.
GROUND BEEF PATTIES Patties should be 1/2 - 3/4" thick. Grill until thoroughly cooked. Cook for 10 - 16 minutes, turning once.
HAM STEAK Precooked ham steaks should be grilled until heated through, 6 - 10 minutes, turning once.
HOTDOGS AND SAUSAGES For precooked products, cook until heated through, 4 - 6 minutes. For raw products, first precook in skillet until almost done, then finish cooking on grill 8 - 12 minutes until thoroughly cooked, turning frequently.
LAMB CHOPS Chops can be bone-in or boneless, 1/2 - 1" thick. Grill for 12 - 16 minutes, turning once.
PORK CHOPS Chops can be bone-in or boneless, 1/2 - 3/4" thick. Grill until only slightly pink in center, about 12 - 16 minutes.
PORK TENDERLOIN Cut boneless tenderloin in half lengthwise. Cook for 12 - 18 minutes, turning several times.
SHRIMP Grill until shrimp turn pink and are springy to the touch. Cook for 5 - 7 minutes.



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