I haven't come across any jellybean recipes, licorice or otherwise, but from what I've read, they are made of sugar, corn syrup, food starch, and flavoring, as well as small amounts of lecithin, anti-foaming agents, wax and confectioner's glaze.
They apparently take a week or more to make. The jelly interior probably originated from Turkish Delight (which I have
seen recipes for) and is made in a mold. The outer shell is a hard sugar coating (like Jordan Almonds) made in a process called "panning", where the candy is rocked or rotated in a large pan or drum filled with sugar and syrup.
Flavor and color are also added, as well as a confectioner's glaze to give a shiny look, and finally, the beans are polished.
I don't know if that helps much. I would certainly be interested to know if you do find a jellybean recipe, and how they turn out!