Hi Gary, just saw your post.
I think I understand what you are looking for but gosh, don't know of such a thing.
And entirely agree with posters that Joy (and I also prefer the older edition) is the best basic book. If I could only have one cookbook, would probably choose that. Have purchased many copies (and usually toss in a Betty Crocker) for new cooks.
Maybe 'The Professional Chef', which seems to be the basic text of the Culinary Institute of America, may be closest to an all around book on cooking, including techniques. It is in its seventh edition, and I believe an eighth is due out before long (I have a much older one). But even that won't answer all of your questions, and it is pricey.
It is also written more in the style of a text, and is not a casual read.
Two books I might recommend if you can find them (these are both out of print I believe).
The first is James Beard's 'Theory and Practice of Good Cooking'.
He discusses a number of techniques and explains them, as well as giving recipes. Stumbled upon a copy in an off the beaten trail bookstore a few years ago and spent the rest of the afternoon reading it.
As an aside, think James Beard is too often overlooked today.
Sure some things may seem a bit out of date, but always learn something invaluable when reading his books.
Pam Anderson's 'How to Cook Without a Book" I am also a fan of.
It is not at all a thorough guide to cooking (and is not meant to be). What it does is discuss several basic recipes and shows how they can be varied to make several, somewhat different dishes.
At least I enjoy it.
Just a couple of ideas.