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Old 03-01-2005, 10:22 AM   #1
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Knife Skills

I found this site on how to chop different vegetables and herbs. I just sort of glanced at it, but it seems like there is some good info in here that some of you might enjoy.

Knife Skills

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Old 03-07-2005, 08:49 PM   #2
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French Cooking Terms and Thank you!

Oh great new guru of DC! I hope this forum is loads of fun for all, and a place to learn and share!

To start this off, I just found a great site of French cooking terms - enjoy!

http://www.cafecreosote.com/dictionary.php3

Hope I did this right!
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Old 03-07-2005, 11:55 PM   #3
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Charts, Links and other Reference

Here's a listing of cooking terms that I've accumulated over the years. I keep this for reference.

Al Dent: pasta cooked to the tooth, an expression meaning that the pasta is still firm in the center.

Au sec: French term that means almost dry, used in reducing liquids in a pan until there is barely any left.

Bake: to cook an item by surrounding it with hot air, usually applied to breads, pastries, vegetables, and fish.

Barding: tying pieces of fat (i.e. fatback, bacon, etc.) over or around a piece of meat with little or no natural fat cover to protect it while cooking.

Batonnet: to cut into a long, thin, shape, x x 2 .

Blanch: to briefly cook items in liquid, usually water but sometimes oil, to parcook the food item.

Boil: to cook in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly and is greatly agitated, 212F (100C) at sea level.

Bouquet garni: a term generally used for a sachet that contains no spices, just herbs and aromatic vegetables, usually tied into a bundle.

Braise: to cook an item is a small amount of liquid, usually after browning it first.

Break: usually applied to a sauce or emulsification, meaning that it the fat has separated from the liquid.

Broil: to cook with radiant heat from above.

Brunoise: 1/8 dice.

Chiffonade: to cut leafy herbs and leafy greens, by stacking in a pile and rolling into a cigar shape, then slicing as thinly as possible.

Chop: to cut into irregular shaped pieces.

Chow: to stir-fry, Chinese style.

Dice: to cut into a cube shape.

En Papillote: to cook a food, wrapped tightly in paper or parchment, so that it actually steams in its own vapor.

Deep-fry: to cook a food submerged in hot fat.

Deglaze: to swirl a liquid in a saute pan, roasting pan, or other pan to dissolve cooked particles (fond) remaining on the bottom of the pan.

Fond: cooked particles or liquids coating the inside of a pan in a glaze.

Glaze: to give shine to the surface of a food by applying a sauce, aspic, sugar, or icing, and/or by browning or melting under a broiler or in an oven.

Grill: to cook with dry heat from below, on a grid.

Griddle: to cook with dry heat from below, on a large solid metal surface.

Julienne: to cut into a long, thin, shape, 1/8 x 1/8 x 2 .

Larding: inserting strips of fat with a larding needle into meats with little or no marbling.

Marinate: to immerse a food item into a seasoned liquid to allow the liquid to penetrate and flavor the food.

Mince: to cut into very fine pieces.

Mirepoix: a 1:1:2 mixture of chopped celery, onions, and carrots, respectively.

Nap: a liquid thickened just enough to cover the back of a spoon.

Pan-broil: same as griddling, except done is a pan.

Pan-fry: to cook in a moderate amount of fat.

Parcook: to briefly cook a food item, for some purpose, to either help in preparation, or to reduce a cooking time later.

Parboil: to partially cook an item in a boiling or simmering liquid.

PDC: abbreviation that stands for Peeled, Deveined, and Cooked, usually used for shrimp.

Poach: to cook in a liquid, usually a small amount, that is hot but not actually bubbling, 160 - 180F (71 - 82C).

Pomme-frite (French Fry): 1/3 - square x 3 long.

Pressure-frying: to deep-fry an item in a specially designed covered fryer that will trap the steam and hold it under pressure.

Reduce: to cook by simmering or boiling until the quantity of liquid is decreased, often to concentrate flavors.

Roast: to cook an item by surrounding it with hot air, applied to meats and pouTRFy.

Sachet: a small bundle of whole herbs and spices, tied loosely into a piece of cheesecloth.

Saute: to cook quickly in a small amount of fat.

Sear: to brown the surface of a food quickly at a high temperature.

Simmer: to cook in a liquid that is bubbling very gently, 185 - 205F (85 - 96C).

Steam: to cook food by exposing it to direct contact with steam, either in a pressurized steamer, or over a kettle of boiling water.

Stew: to simmer a food or foods in a small amount of liquid, which is usually served with the food as a sauce.

Sweat: to cook slowly in fat without browning, sometimes under a cover.

Foreign names of foods:
Bchamel: classic white sauce, based on milk that has been seasoned and thickened.

Beurre manie: a mixture of cold butter and flour, uncooked, used to thicken a sauce.

Bisque: a thickened soup made from shellfish.

Broth: flavorful liquid obtained by simmer meats and/or vegetables. This is different from a stock, in that a stock uses bones.

Cellophane noodles: made from mung beans. A.k.a. glass noodles, Sai Fun, or bean threads.

Chile garlic sauce: hot Chinese condiment made from red chiles and garlic.

Chile sauce: bottled condiment, find near catsup in the grocery store.

Chung choy or Preserved Turnip: used in soups or steamed dishes. Available in sheets or balls. Use 1 oz of the sheet for one ball. Needs to be rinsed before using.

Compound butter: butter that has been softened, with flavorings and seasonings added, then formed and chilled.

Consomm: a rich, flavorful stock or broth that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent.

Demi-glace or Demi-glaze: classic sauce of half Espagnole and half brown stock, reduced by half. In modern times, its usually a well-flavored brown stock that is reduced by half.

Dow See: Chinese fermented black beans.

Emulsion: a mixture of liquid fat and water-based liquid, bound together by egg to prevent it from breaking.

Espagnole: thickened brown stock.

Fines Herbs: a blend of parsley, chervil, tarragon, and chives. Very mild, used in French cuisine.

Fond Li: brown stock thickened with cornstarch.

Galangal: young, mild, gingerroot.

Glace or Glaze: a stock that is reduced to Nap, or until it coats the back of a spoon, usually reducing by or more. It will be solid and rubbery when refrigerated.

Glace de Poisson: a glace made from fish stock

Glace de Viande: a glace made from brown stock.

Glace de Volaille: a glace made from chicken stock.

Gumbo Fil: ground sassafras leaves, a.k.a. Fil or Fil powder.

Hoisin sauce: soy/pepper condiment common in Chinese recipes. Find in the International section of a grocery store.

Herbs de Provence: a blend of basil, thyme, rosemary, oregano, sage, and marjoram.

Hollandaise: classic butter/egg sauce, usually used for vegetables and breakfast foods.

Jaggery: Palm sugar, usually found in a pressed cake. Available in Asian grocery stores.

Kaoliang: grain liquor from China.

Lace Fat or Caul Fat: peritoneum or abdominal lining of a pig. Special order from a butcher. An excellent wrapper for fried foods that almost disappears during cooking, but leaves a great flavor and crunch.

Lot Mein See: hot bean sauce.
Mein See or Miso: chinese condiment, the remains of making soy sauce.

Oyster Sauce: chinese cooking sauce, made from oysters, but no fishy taste.

Pesto: a sauce from Italy, pureed basil, garlic, cheese, and pine nut or walnuts, emulsified in olive oil.

Rendered chicken fat: use the skins and/or fat from the body cavity of a chicken. Cook the fat until the pieces are crisp and dry (just like making lard). Strain and store in the fridge. Use for Chinese dishes.

Roux: a mixture of equal part by weight of flour and fat. It should be stiff, not pourable or runny. You can make a roux in a pan using fat from the cooking process, but it probably wont be as stiff.

Star Anise or Bot Gok: a licorice-like spice that resembles an eight-pointed star about in diameter.

Stock: flavorful liquid obtained by simmering bones and vegetables.

Slurry: a mixture of water and cornstarch.

Tahini: a paste made from sesame seeds and sesame oil. Used in mid-east cuisine.

Tofu: a.k.a. bean curd. Available in the produce section of a grocery store. Looks like a soft, white cheese.

Velout: White Stock (chicken, veal, or uncaramelized pork stock), that has been thickened a bit. When properly seasoned, that can be used as a basic gravy.

Whitewash: a thin mixture of flour and water.

Zaartar: a blend of sumac bark, thyme, and chick-peas (garbanzo beans) or sesame seeds, common in mid-east foods.
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Old 03-08-2005, 03:41 AM   #4
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*Hugs his edition of Larousse Gastronomique*

Ahh how I love this book, anything I ever wanted to know...ever.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:04 AM   #5
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Smile Roasted vegetable chart from marmalady

marmalady posted a great chart for roasting vegetables in the Vegetables and Vegetarians forum on 10-11-2004. Now that we have a Terms and Techniques thread I think it deserves a "bump" so I'm quoting it here. Thanks marmalady!

Quote:
Originally Posted by marmalady in the Vegetables and Vegetarians forum on 10-11-2004, 07:35 PM
Vilasman's topic on roasting fennel reminded me I have this cooking time chart for roasted veg - I would love everyone to try some of the more 'unusual' veg to roast, like broccoli and cauliflower (especially cauliflower, even if you hate it!) - roasting at a high heat brings the sugars out and totally transforms veggies - even brussel sprouts! :)

This is from Roseanne Gold's book on roasting; although she recommends roasting at 500 degrees F !! - most of the time I'm happy with the results at 425 or 450.

ROASTED VEGETABLE TIMES AND TIPS

- Add dry herbs and seasonings along with oil before roasting.
- Add fresh herbs the last 10-15 minutes.
- After roasting, a small amount of vinegar, stock, fruit juice, cream, yogurt or butter can be added to make a moister serving.
- Seasonings such as Worchestershire or hot pepper sauce should be stirred in after roasting.

Pan sizes:
4 cups veggies - 12x8 pan 8 cups veggies - 14x12 pan 12 cups veggies- 18x13 pan

Cooking times:

30 MINUTES
Small beets
Parsnips
Cherry tomatoes
Potato wedges
Fennel
Whole large shallots
Garlic
Sweet potato wedge
Leeks cut in 1 inch
Turnip wedges
Onion wedges
Parsnips
Zucchini halves
Carrot chunks
Eggplant
Endive/chicory

20 MINUTES
Tomatoes
Trevisio
Zucchini chunks
Shallots,whole,med.

15 MINUTES
Broccoli
Mushrooms
Jerusalem artichokes
Italian fry peppers
1-2in.square bell pepper
Cauliflower

11 MINUTES
Asparagus
Scallions
The original link is here http://www.discusscooking.com/forums...ead.php?t=3257
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:24 AM   #6
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Canning Basics

http://www.homecanning.com/usa/ALBasics.asp
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:25 AM   #7
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USDA's Complete Guide to Home Canning

http://foodsafety.cas.psu.edu/canningguide.html
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:30 AM   #8
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Beef charts

http://www.alliedkenco.com/data/charts/chart_beef.htm
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:38 AM   #9
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Meat cooking Temperature Chart

MEAT-COOKING TEMPERATURE CHART





Meat-Cooking Temperature Chart



Meat

Fahrenheit

Celsius

Beef:

Rare

120 - 125

45 - 50

Medium-Rare

130 - 135

55 - 60

Medium

140 - 145

60 - 65

Medium-Well

150 - 155

65 - 70

Well Done

160 and above

70 and above

Lamb:

Rare

135

60

Medium-rare

140 - 150

60 - 65

Medium

160

70

Well done

165 and above

75 and above

Poultry:

Chicken

165 - 175

75 - 80

Turkey

165 - 175

75 - 80

Pork:

Fresh Pork

160 - 170

65 - 70

Ham (Fully-Cooked)

140

60

Ham (Uncooked)

160

70


Note: All Celsius figures are rounded off to the nearest tenth.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:39 AM   #10
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Meat grilling chart

MEAT GRILLING CHARTS

These charts are for outdoor cooking on a gas or charcoal grill. Make sure that chicken, hamburgers, and seafood are fully cooked before serving. Steaks can be cooked to any desired doneness. Pork and lamb products should be cooked until the interior is pink. MEAT GRILLING TIMES
BONELESS STEAK Marinate if desired. Steak should be 1/2 - 1" thick. Grill for 8 - 14 minutes for medium rare, 12 - 18 minutes for medium, turning once.
BONE-IN STEAK Marinate if desired. Steak should be 1/2 - 1" thick. Grill for 7 - 14 minutes for medium rare, 11 - 18 minutes for medium, turning once.
CHICKEN BREASTS Boneless products cook more evenly. Chicken breasts can be cooked as is, or pounded thin for quicker cooking time. Grill until thoroughly done and juices run clear, about 8 - 12 minutes, turning once.
FISH FILLETS Cook until fillets flake easily when tested with a fork. Grill for 4 - 6 minutes per 1/2" of thickness, turning once.
FISH STEAKS Tuna, salmon, halibut, swordfish steaks should be 1/2 - 1" thick. Marinate before cooking if desired. Grill for 4 - 6 minutes for each 1/2" thickness.
GROUND BEEF PATTIES Patties should be 1/2 - 3/4" thick. Grill until thoroughly cooked. Cook for 10 - 16 minutes, turning once.
HAM STEAK Precooked ham steaks should be grilled until heated through, 6 - 10 minutes, turning once.
HOTDOGS AND SAUSAGES For precooked products, cook until heated through, 4 - 6 minutes. For raw products, first precook in skillet until almost done, then finish cooking on grill 8 - 12 minutes until thoroughly cooked, turning frequently.
LAMB CHOPS Chops can be bone-in or boneless, 1/2 - 1" thick. Grill for 12 - 16 minutes, turning once.
PORK CHOPS Chops can be bone-in or boneless, 1/2 - 3/4" thick. Grill until only slightly pink in center, about 12 - 16 minutes.
PORK TENDERLOIN Cut boneless tenderloin in half lengthwise. Cook for 12 - 18 minutes, turning several times.
SHRIMP Grill until shrimp turn pink and are springy to the touch. Cook for 5 - 7 minutes.



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Old 03-08-2005, 08:41 AM   #11
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Beef Cooking Times

Beef Cooking TimesBeef cooking temperatures are important to monitor in order to insure meat is safely cooked to the proper temperature. When preparing beef, use the chart below as a guide to check doneness when the meat is oven baked, oven broiled, pan fried, pan broiled, grilled, and cooked in a bag.
BEEF Cooking Temperatures and TimesOven BakedApproximate Cooking Time (Minutes per pound)CutOven
Temp.
WeightRare
(140F)
Med-rare
(145F)
Medium
(160F)
Med-well
(165F)
Well
(170F)
Standing rib (ribs 6-7 inches long)300-325F6-8 lbs23-25 min24-28 min27-30 min28-34 min32-35 minRib roast
(chine bone removed)350F4-6 lbs
6-8 lbs18-22 min
15-18 min22-26 min
18-22 min28-34 min
22-28 min34-36 min
28-30 min36-38 min
30-32 minRib eye roast350F4-6 lbs18-20 min20-22 min20-24 min22-24 min22-26 minEye round roast325F2-3 lbs35-38 min35-45 min45-53 min45-60 min55-68 minRound tip roast325F3-4 lbs
6-8 lbs28-30 min
16-18 min30-35 min
18-20 min38-45 min
23-25 min45-48 min
25-28 min48-50 min
28-30 minSirloin tip300-325F3 1/2-4 lbs35 min36 min38 min39 min40 minRolled rib300-325F5-7 lbs32 min35 min38 min43 min48 minRolled rump300-325F4-6 lbs25 min26 min28 min29 min30 minWhole tenderloin425F4-5 lbs45-60 min total50-60 min total60-70 min total Half tenderloin425F2-3 lbs 35-40 min total45-50 min total Meatloaf350F1 1/2 lb 1 1/4 hr total Start with meat at refrigerator temperature. Remove meat from oven when it reaches 5 to 10F below desired doneness. The temperature will continue to rise as the meat stands.


Pan FriedApproximate Cooking TimeCutThicknessRare
(140F)
Med-rare
(145F)
Medium
(160F)
Med-well
(165F)
Well
(170F)
Cube steak1/2 inch 6-8 minSteak1 inch8-11 min11-12 min12-14 min14-15 min15-17 minPan BroiledApproximate Cooking TimeCutThicknessRare
(140F)
Med-rare
(145F)
Medium
(160F)
Med-well
(165F)
Well
(170F)
Cube steak1/2 inch 5-8 minRib eye steak1 inch
1 1/2 inch
2 inch15 min
25 min
35 min

20 min
30 min
45 min Porterhouse steak1 inch
1 1/2 inch
2 inch20 min
30 min
40 min 25 min
35 min
45 min Chuck blade steak3/4 inch
1 inch
1 1/2 inch14 min
20 min
35 min 20 min
25 min
40 min Tenderloin steak1 inch
1 1/2 inch10 min
15 min 15 min
20 min Sirloin steak1 inch
1 1/2 inch
2 inch20 min
30 min
40 min 25 min
35 min
45 min Top loin steak1 inch
1 1/2 inch
2 inch15 min
25 min
35 min 20 min
30 min
45 min Top round1 inch
1 1/2 inch20 min
30 min 30 min
35 min Flank steak1-1 1/2 lbs12 min 14 min Hamburger patty1 inch8 min 12 min Broiled in OvenApproximate Cooking Time for each sideCutThicknessRare
(140F)
Med-rare
(145F)
Medium
(160F)
Med-well
(165F)
Well
(170F)
Steak1" thick5 min 6 min 8 min2" thick16 min 18 min 20 minGrilled over med.-hot fireApproximate Cooking Time for each side CutThickness/Weight Rare
(140F)*
Med-rare
(145F)*
Medium
(160F)
Med-well
(165F)
Well
(170F)
Rib eye3/4 inch5-7 min6-8 min7-9 min8-10 min9-11 minNew York strip1 inch8-10 min9-11 min10-12 min11-13 min12-14 minFlank steak1-1 1/2 lbs10-15 min14-18 min15-19 min Steaks:
Porterhouse, rib, ribeye, sirloin, T-bone, tenderloin, top loin

1 inch

1 1/2 inch

2 inch

6-7 min

10-12 min

15-17 min

6-8 min

11-13 min

16-18 min

7-9 min

12-15 min

17-19 min

8-10 min

14-18 min

18-20 min

9-11 min

15-19 min

19-22 min

Ribs, backcut in 1-rib portions 10 min TenderloinHalf, 2-3 lbs
Whole, 4-6 lbs 10-12 min
12-15 min Hamburger patty*1 inch thick/6-oz4 min5 min6 min7 min8 min*Hamburgers should be cooked to at least 160F to eliminate the small risk of food-borne illnesses in small children, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems.Cooked at 325F in Oven BagTotal
Weight
Approximate Cooking TimeAdd Water to Oven Bag
Meat
Thermometer Temperature
CutRegular Size
10"x16"
Large Size
14"x20"
Turkey Size
19"x23 1/2"
Chuck pot roast, boneless1 1/2-2 1/2 lbs
3-5 lbs1 3/4-2 hrs

2 1/2-3 hrs 1/2 cup
1/2 cupFork Tender
Fork TenderTri-tip roast1 1/2-2 lbs50-55 min None145FRound tip roast (sirloin top)3-4 lbs
4-8 lbs1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 1/2-2 1/2 hrs 1/4 cup
1/4 cup

145F
145FEye of round roast2-3 lbs
3-5 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs
1 1/4-1 3/4 hrs 1/4 cup
1/4 cup145F
145FTop round (London broil)3-3 1/2 lbs 55-60 min 1/2 cup145FRump roast2-4 lbs
4-8 lbs1 1/2-2 hrs
2-2 1/2 hrs 1/4 cup
1/4 cup160F
160FBottom round roast2-4 lbs
4-8 lbs1 1/2-2 hrs
2-2 1/2 hrs 1/4 cup
1/4 cup160F
160FPrime rib roast2-3 lbs
3-5 lbs3/4-1 1/4 hrs

1 1/2-2 hrs None
None145F
145FBeef rib roast, small end, 4 ribs8-10 lbs 2 1/2-2 3/4 hrsNone145FBrisket, boneless, whole8-10 lbs 3-3 1/4 hrs1/2 cupFork TenderBrisket, boneless, half2-3 lbs
3-5 lbs1 1/2-2 hrs
2 1/2-3 hrs 1/2 cup
1/2 cupFork Tender
Fork TenderCorned beef brisket2-3 lbs
3-5 lbs2 1/2-3 hrs
3-3 1/2 hrs 1/2 cup
1/2 cupFork Tender
Fork TenderPreheat oven to 325F. Add 1 Tbsp. flour to oven bag. Remove beef from oven when meat thermometer reaches temperature listed or when meat is fork tender. If using a Turkey Size oven bag for foods smaller than 12 lbs., gather oven bag loosely around food, allowing room for heat circulation, close with nylon tie and cut away excess oven bag.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:43 AM   #12
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Pork Cooking Times

Pork Cooking TimesPork cooking temperatures are important to monitor in order to insure meat is safely cooked to the proper temperature. When preparing pork, use the chart below as a guide to check doneness when the meat is oven cooked, grilled, and cooked in a bag.
PORK Cooking Temperatures and TimesOven cooked at 350F
CutWeightMeat Thermometer
Reading
Approximate Cooking Time
(Minutes per pound)
Fresh porkCrown roast
Center loin roast (with bone)
Boneless top loin roast
Blade loin or sirloin
Rolled loin
Whole leg (fresh ham - bone-in)
Whole leg (fresh ham, rolled)
Half leg (bone-in)
Leg half, shank or butt portion
Boston butt
Boston shoulder
Tenderloin (roast at 425-450F)
Picnic shoulder
Rolled picnic shoulder
Cushion style shoulder
Spare ribs 6-10 lbs
3-5 lbs
2-4 lbs
3-4 lb
3-5 lb
12-16 lbs
10-14 lbs
5-8 lbs
3-4 lbs
3-6 lbs
4-6 lbs
1/2-1 1/2 lbs
5-8 lbs
3-5 lbs
3-5 lbs
3 lbs160F
160F
160F
170F
170F
170F
170F
170F
160-170F
160-170F
170F
160F
170F
170F
170F
Well done20 min
20 min
20 min
40-45 min
35-40 min
22-26 min
24-28 min
35-40 min
40 min
45 min
40-45 min
25-35 min total
30-35 min
35-40 min
30-35 min
1 1/2-2 1/2 hrs totalCured and smokedArm picnic shoulder (bone-in)
Shoulder boneless roll5-8 min
2-3 min170F
170F 30 min
35-45 minHam - Smoked, cook before eating
Half ham - bone-in
Whole ham
Whole ham
5-7 lbs
10-14 lbs
14-16 lbs
160F
160F
160F
25-30 min
18-20 min
15-18 minHam - Smoked fully cooked pork
(heat at 325F)Half ham - bone-in
Half ham - boneless
Whole ham - bone-in
Whole ham - boneless
Whole ham - boneless5-7 lbs
3-4 lbs
12-14 lbs
6-8 lbs
14-16 lbs140F
140F
140F
140F
140F18-20 min
25-30 min
15 min
10-12 min
5-7 minGrilled CutThicknessMedium (145F)Well (160F)Fresh porkBlade steak
Chops
Loin, rib and shoulder
Patties 1/2 inch
3/4 inch
1 1/4 - 1 1/2 inch
1/2 inch10-12 min
12-14 min
35-40 min
6-8 min12-14 min
14-19 min
40-45 min
8-10 minHam - Fully cooked 8-10 min/lb Ham - Cook before eating 3-4 lbs
5-7 lbs
10-14 lbs 10-12 min/lb
12-18 min/lb
30-35 min/lbStart with meat at refrigerated temperature. Remove pork from oven when it reaches 5 to 10F below desired doneness; temperature will continue to rise as it stands.Cooked at 325F in Oven BagTotal
Weight
Approximate Cooking TimeAdd Water to Oven Bag
Meat
Thermometer Temperature
CutRegular Size
10"x16"
Large Size
14"x20"
Turkey Size
19"x23 1/2"
Fresh ham (pork leg)5-8 lbs
12-14 lbs 2-3 hrs
3 1/2-4 hrsNone
1/2 cup170F
170FTop loin roast, boneless, tied2 1/2-3 lbs
4-6 lbs
10 lbs1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs
1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs

2-2 1/4 hrs1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1/2 cup160F
160F
160FSirloin roast, bone-in2 1/2-3 1/2 lbs
4-6 lbs1 1/4-1 3/4 hrs
2-2 1/4 hrs 1/4 cup
1/4 cup160F
160FTenderloin, whole1 1/2-2 lbs 35-40 min None160FPork chops (1/2" thick)3/4-1 lbs
1-1 1/2 lbs30-35 min
30-35 min None
None160F
160FSpareribs1-1 1/2 lbs
1 1/2-4 lbs1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs
1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs 1/4 cup
1/4 cupFork Tender
Fork TenderBoston butt roast (shoulder)2 1/2-3 lbs
4-6 lbs1 3/4-2 1/4 hrs
2 1/2-3 hrs 1/4 cup
1/4 cup170F
170FFresh picnic4-5 lbs 2 1/2-3 hrs 1/4 cup170FSmoked PorkSmoked picnic5-8 lbs 2 1/4-3 hrs 1/4 cup170FWhole fully cooked ham, bone-in12-16 lbs 2 1/2-3 1/4 hrsNone140FFully cooked ham half, bone-in6-8 lbs
8-10 lbs 1 1/2-2 hrs
2-2 1/2 hrsNone
None140F
140FFully cooked ham half, boneless2-4 lbs
4-6 lbs
10-12 lbs1-1 3/4 hrs
1 1/4-1 3/4 hrs

2 1/4-2 3/4 hrs1/2 cup
1/2 cup
1/2 cup140F
140F
140FSmoked shank or rump half ham, spiral sliced - place cut side down8-10 lbs 1 1/2-1 3/4 hrsNone140FWhole country ham, bone-in10-14 lbs 3 1/2-4 1/2 hrsSoak covered in water 24 hours before cooking; drain. Add 4 cups fresh water to bag to cook.Fork TenderCountry ham half, bone-in5-7 lbs 2 1/2-3 hrsSoak covered in water 24 hours before cooking; drain. Add 2 cups fresh water to bag to cook.Fork TenderPreheat oven to 325F. Add 1 Tbsp. flour to oven bag. Remove pork from oven when meat thermometer reaches temperature listed or when meat is fork tender. If using a Turkey Size oven bag for foods smaller than 12 lbs., gather oven bag loosely around food, allowing room for heat circulation, close with nylon tie and cut away excess oven bag.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:45 AM   #13
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Chicken/Turkey and other bird Cooking Times

Poultry Cooking TimesPoultry cooking temperatures are important to monitor in order to insure meat is safely cooked to the proper temperature. When preparing poultry, use the chart below as a guide to check doneness when the meat is oven baked, stewed, grilled, and cooked in a bag.

POULTRY Cooking Temperatures and Times

Oven Cooked
Approximate Cooking TimeTypeTemp.WeightUnstuffedStuffedChicken350F2 1/2-3 lbs
3-4 lbs
4-6 lbs1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs
1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 3/4-2 hrs1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 3/4-24 hrs
2-2 1/4hrsCornish Hen350F1-2 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs1 1/4-1 1/2 hrsCapon325F5-6 lbs
6-8 lbs1 3/4-2 hrs
2 1/4-3 1/2 hrs2 1/2-3 hrs
3-4 hrsTurkey, whole




Breast, half
Breast, whole
Breast, whole
Drumsticks
Thighs
Wings 325F8-12 lbs
12-14 lbs
14-18 lbs
18-20 lbs
20-24 lbs
2-3 lbs
4-6 lbs
6-8 lbs
3/4-1 lb
3/4-1 lb
6-8 oz2 3/4-3 hrs
3-3 3/4 hrs
3 3/4-4 1/4 hrs
4 1/4-4 1/2 hrs
4 1/2-5 hrs
50-60 min
1 1/2-1 1/4 hrs
2 1/4-3 1/4 hrs
2-2 1/4 hrs
1 3/4-2 hrs
1 3/4-2 1/4 hrs3-3 1/2 hrs
3 1/2-4 hrs
4-4 1/4 hrs
4 1/4-4 3/4 hrs
4 3/4-5 1/2 hrsGoose350F10-12 lbs2 3/4-3 1/4 hrs3-3 1/2 hrsDuck350F4-5 lbs2-2 1/2 hrs2 1/2-2 3/4 hrsStart with meat at refrigerator temperature. Remove from oven when meat thermometer reads 175-180F; temperature will continue to rise as it stands.StewedApproximate Cooking TimeTypeWeightUnstuffedStuffedWhole broiler fryer3-4 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs1 1/4-1 3/4 hrsWhole roaster5-7 lbs1 3/4-2 hrs2-2 1/2 hrsWhole cornish hens18-24 oz35-40 min50-70 minBreast half, bone-in6-8 oz35-45 min Breast half, boneless4 oz25-30 min Leg or thigh8 or 4 oz40-50 min Drumstick4 oz40-50 min Wing or wingette/drumette2-3 oz35-45 min GrilledApproximate Cooking Time
Internal Temp. 180FTypeWeightUnstuffedStuffedWhole broiler fryer
(indirect heat)3-4 lbs60-70 min1 1/4-1 3/4 hrsWhole roaster
(indirect heat)5-7 lbs18-25 min/lb23-55 min/lbWhole cornish hens
(indirect heat)18-24 oz45-55 min1-1 1/2 hrsWhole turkey
(indirect heat)8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs2-3 hrs
3-4 hrs Whole duckling
(indirect heat)4 1/2 lbs2 1/2 hrs Whole goose
(indirect heat)8-12 lbs18-20 min/lb Whole capon
(indirect heat)4-8 lbs15-20 min/lb Breast half, bone-in6-8 oz10-15 min/side Breast half, boneless4 oz
6-8 oz8-10 min/side
10-15 min/side Leg or thigh8 or 4 oz10-15 min/side Drumstick4 oz
8-16 oz8-12 min/side
10-15 min/side Wing or wingette/drumette2-3 oz8-12 min/side Cooked at 350F in Oven BagApproximate Cooking TimeTypeTotal
Weight Regular
Size
10" x 16"Large
Size
14" x 20"Turkey Size
10" x
23 1/2"Whole turkey, unstuffed8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs
16-20 lbs
20-24 lbs 1 1/2-2 hrs
2-2 1/2 hrs
2 1/2-3 hrs
3-3 1/2 hrsWhole turkey, stuffed8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs
16-20 lbs
20-24 lbs 2-2 1/2 hrs
2 1/2-3 hrs
3-3 1/2 hrs
3 1/2-4 hrsTurkey breast, bone-in4-8 lbs

10-12 lbs 1 1/4-2 hrs

2 1/4 -
2 3/4 hrs Turkey breast, boneless2 1/2-3 lbs
5 lbs
8-12 lbs1 1/4-1 3/4 hrs
2-2 1/4 hrs

3-3 1/2 hrsTurkey drumsticks1 1/2-2 lbs

2-3 lbs1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 1/2 -
1 3/4 hrs Chicken pieces2-2 1/4 lbs
2 3/4-3 lbs45-50 min

45-50 min Chicken thighs1/2-1 1/2 lbs
1 1/2-2 1/4 lbs35-40 min
35-40 min Chicken drumsticks1-1 1/2 lbs
2-2 1/2 lbs35-40 min
35-40 min Chicken breast half, bone-in1 1/2-2 lbs
2-2 1/2 lbs40-45 min
40-45 min Chicken breast half, boneless3/4-1 lbs
1-1 1/2 lbs25-30 min
25-30 min Whole chicken3 1/2-4 lbs
5-7 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs
1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs Cornish hens1 1/2-3 1/2 lbs
4-7 lbs40-45 min
55-60 min Preheat oven to 350F. Add 1 Tbsp. flour to oven bag. Brush turkey with vegetable oil or butter. Remove pouTRFy from oven when meat thermometer reaches 180F. If using a Turkey Size oven bag for foods smaller than 12 lbs., gather oven bag loosely around food, allowing room for heat circulation, close with nylon tie and cut away excess oven bag.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:46 AM   #14
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Turkey Cooking Times

Poultry Cooking TimesPoultry cooking temperatures are important to monitor in order to insure meat is safely cooked to the proper temperature. When preparing poultry, use the chart below as a guide to check doneness when the meat is oven baked, stewed, grilled, and cooked in a bag.
POULTRY Cooking Temperatures and Times Oven CookedApproximate Cooking TimeTypeTemp.WeightUnstuffedStuffedChicken350F2 1/2-3 lbs
3-4 lbs
4-6 lbs1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs
1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 3/4-2 hrs1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 3/4-24 hrs
2-2 1/4hrsCornish Hen350F1-2 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs1 1/4-1 1/2 hrsCapon325F5-6 lbs
6-8 lbs1 3/4-2 hrs
2 1/4-3 1/2 hrs2 1/2-3 hrs
3-4 hrsTurkey, whole




Breast, half
Breast, whole
Breast, whole
Drumsticks
Thighs
Wings 325F8-12 lbs
12-14 lbs
14-18 lbs
18-20 lbs
20-24 lbs
2-3 lbs
4-6 lbs
6-8 lbs
3/4-1 lb
3/4-1 lb
6-8 oz2 3/4-3 hrs
3-3 3/4 hrs
3 3/4-4 1/4 hrs
4 1/4-4 1/2 hrs
4 1/2-5 hrs
50-60 min
1 1/2-1 1/4 hrs
2 1/4-3 1/4 hrs
2-2 1/4 hrs
1 3/4-2 hrs
1 3/4-2 1/4 hrs3-3 1/2 hrs
3 1/2-4 hrs
4-4 1/4 hrs
4 1/4-4 3/4 hrs
4 3/4-5 1/2 hrsGoose350F10-12 lbs2 3/4-3 1/4 hrs3-3 1/2 hrsDuck350F4-5 lbs2-2 1/2 hrs2 1/2-2 3/4 hrsStart with meat at refrigerator temperature. Remove from oven when meat thermometer reads 175-180F; temperature will continue to rise as it stands.StewedApproximate Cooking TimeTypeWeightUnstuffedStuffedWhole broiler fryer3-4 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs1 1/4-1 3/4 hrsWhole roaster5-7 lbs1 3/4-2 hrs2-2 1/2 hrsWhole cornish hens18-24 oz35-40 min50-70 minBreast half, bone-in6-8 oz35-45 min Breast half, boneless4 oz25-30 min Leg or thigh8 or 4 oz40-50 min Drumstick4 oz40-50 min Wing or wingette/drumette2-3 oz35-45 min GrilledApproximate Cooking Time
Internal Temp. 180F
TypeWeightUnstuffedStuffedWhole broiler fryer
(indirect heat)3-4 lbs60-70 min1 1/4-1 3/4 hrsWhole roaster
(indirect heat)5-7 lbs18-25 min/lb23-55 min/lbWhole cornish hens
(indirect heat)18-24 oz45-55 min1-1 1/2 hrsWhole turkey
(indirect heat)8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs2-3 hrs
3-4 hrs Whole duckling
(indirect heat)4 1/2 lbs2 1/2 hrs Whole goose
(indirect heat)8-12 lbs18-20 min/lb Whole capon
(indirect heat)4-8 lbs15-20 min/lb Breast half, bone-in6-8 oz10-15 min/side Breast half, boneless4 oz
6-8 oz8-10 min/side
10-15 min/side Leg or thigh8 or 4 oz10-15 min/side Drumstick4 oz
8-16 oz8-12 min/side
10-15 min/side Wing or wingette/drumette2-3 oz8-12 min/side Cooked at 350F in Oven BagApproximate Cooking TimeTypeTotal
Weight
Regular
Size
10" x 16"
Large
Size
14" x 20"
Turkey Size
10" x
23 1/2"
Whole turkey, unstuffed8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs
16-20 lbs
20-24 lbs 1 1/2-2 hrs
2-2 1/2 hrs
2 1/2-3 hrs
3-3 1/2 hrsWhole turkey, stuffed8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs
16-20 lbs
20-24 lbs 2-2 1/2 hrs
2 1/2-3 hrs
3-3 1/2 hrs
3 1/2-4 hrsTurkey breast, bone-in4-8 lbs

10-12 lbs 1 1/4-2 hrs

2 1/4 -
2 3/4 hrs Turkey breast, boneless2 1/2-3 lbs
5 lbs
8-12 lbs1 1/4-1 3/4 hrs
2-2 1/4 hrs

3-3 1/2 hrsTurkey drumsticks1 1/2-2 lbs

2-3 lbs1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 1/2 -
1 3/4 hrs Chicken pieces2-2 1/4 lbs
2 3/4-3 lbs45-50 min

45-50 min Chicken thighs1/2-1 1/2 lbs
1 1/2-2 1/4 lbs35-40 min
35-40 min Chicken drumsticks1-1 1/2 lbs
2-2 1/2 lbs35-40 min
35-40 min Chicken breast half, bone-in1 1/2-2 lbs
2-2 1/2 lbs40-45 min
40-45 min Chicken breast half, boneless3/4-1 lbs
1-1 1/2 lbs25-30 min
25-30 min Whole chicken3 1/2-4 lbs
5-7 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs
1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs Cornish hens1 1/2-3 1/2 lbs
4-7 lbs40-45 min
55-60 min Preheat oven to 350F. Add 1 Tbsp. flour to oven bag. Brush turkey with vegetable oil or butter. Remove poultry from oven when meat thermometer reaches 180F. If using a Turkey Size oven bag for foods smaller than 12 lbs., gather oven bag loosely around food, allowing room for heat circulation, close with nylon tie and cut away excess oven bag.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:48 AM   #15
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Lamb Cooking Times

Poultry Cooking TimesPoultry cooking temperatures are important to monitor in order to insure meat is safely cooked to the proper temperature. When preparing poultry, use the chart below as a guide to check doneness when the meat is oven baked, stewed, grilled, and cooked in a bag.
POULTRY Cooking Temperatures and Times Oven CookedApproximate Cooking TimeTypeTemp.WeightUnstuffedStuffedChicken350F2 1/2-3 lbs
3-4 lbs
4-6 lbs1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs
1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 3/4-2 hrs1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 3/4-24 hrs
2-2 1/4hrsCornish Hen350F1-2 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs1 1/4-1 1/2 hrsCapon325F5-6 lbs
6-8 lbs1 3/4-2 hrs
2 1/4-3 1/2 hrs2 1/2-3 hrs
3-4 hrsTurkey, whole




Breast, half
Breast, whole
Breast, whole
Drumsticks
Thighs
Wings 325F8-12 lbs
12-14 lbs
14-18 lbs
18-20 lbs
20-24 lbs
2-3 lbs
4-6 lbs
6-8 lbs
3/4-1 lb
3/4-1 lb
6-8 oz2 3/4-3 hrs
3-3 3/4 hrs
3 3/4-4 1/4 hrs
4 1/4-4 1/2 hrs
4 1/2-5 hrs
50-60 min
1 1/2-1 1/4 hrs
2 1/4-3 1/4 hrs
2-2 1/4 hrs
1 3/4-2 hrs
1 3/4-2 1/4 hrs3-3 1/2 hrs
3 1/2-4 hrs
4-4 1/4 hrs
4 1/4-4 3/4 hrs
4 3/4-5 1/2 hrsGoose350F10-12 lbs2 3/4-3 1/4 hrs3-3 1/2 hrsDuck350F4-5 lbs2-2 1/2 hrs2 1/2-2 3/4 hrsStart with meat at refrigerator temperature. Remove from oven when meat thermometer reads 175-180F; temperature will continue to rise as it stands.StewedApproximate Cooking TimeTypeWeightUnstuffedStuffedWhole broiler fryer3-4 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs1 1/4-1 3/4 hrsWhole roaster5-7 lbs1 3/4-2 hrs2-2 1/2 hrsWhole cornish hens18-24 oz35-40 min50-70 minBreast half, bone-in6-8 oz35-45 min Breast half, boneless4 oz25-30 min Leg or thigh8 or 4 oz40-50 min Drumstick4 oz40-50 min Wing or wingette/drumette2-3 oz35-45 min GrilledApproximate Cooking Time
Internal Temp. 180F
TypeWeightUnstuffedStuffedWhole broiler fryer
(indirect heat)3-4 lbs60-70 min1 1/4-1 3/4 hrsWhole roaster
(indirect heat)5-7 lbs18-25 min/lb23-55 min/lbWhole cornish hens
(indirect heat)18-24 oz45-55 min1-1 1/2 hrsWhole turkey
(indirect heat)8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs2-3 hrs
3-4 hrs Whole duckling
(indirect heat)4 1/2 lbs2 1/2 hrs Whole goose
(indirect heat)8-12 lbs18-20 min/lb Whole capon
(indirect heat)4-8 lbs15-20 min/lb Breast half, bone-in6-8 oz10-15 min/side Breast half, boneless4 oz
6-8 oz8-10 min/side
10-15 min/side Leg or thigh8 or 4 oz10-15 min/side Drumstick4 oz
8-16 oz8-12 min/side
10-15 min/side Wing or wingette/drumette2-3 oz8-12 min/side Cooked at 350F in Oven BagApproximate Cooking TimeTypeTotal
Weight
Regular
Size
10" x 16"
Large
Size
14" x 20"
Turkey Size
10" x
23 1/2"
Whole turkey, unstuffed8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs
16-20 lbs
20-24 lbs 1 1/2-2 hrs
2-2 1/2 hrs
2 1/2-3 hrs
3-3 1/2 hrsWhole turkey, stuffed8-12 lbs
12-16 lbs
16-20 lbs
20-24 lbs 2-2 1/2 hrs
2 1/2-3 hrs
3-3 1/2 hrs
3 1/2-4 hrsTurkey breast, bone-in4-8 lbs

10-12 lbs 1 1/4-2 hrs

2 1/4 -
2 3/4 hrs Turkey breast, boneless2 1/2-3 lbs
5 lbs
8-12 lbs1 1/4-1 3/4 hrs
2-2 1/4 hrs

3-3 1/2 hrsTurkey drumsticks1 1/2-2 lbs

2-3 lbs1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs
1 1/2 -
1 3/4 hrs Chicken pieces2-2 1/4 lbs
2 3/4-3 lbs45-50 min

45-50 min Chicken thighs1/2-1 1/2 lbs
1 1/2-2 1/4 lbs35-40 min
35-40 min Chicken drumsticks1-1 1/2 lbs
2-2 1/2 lbs35-40 min
35-40 min Chicken breast half, bone-in1 1/2-2 lbs
2-2 1/2 lbs40-45 min
40-45 min Chicken breast half, boneless3/4-1 lbs
1-1 1/2 lbs25-30 min
25-30 min Whole chicken3 1/2-4 lbs
5-7 lbs1-1 1/4 hrs
1 1/4-1 1/2 hrs Cornish hens1 1/2-3 1/2 lbs
4-7 lbs40-45 min
55-60 min Preheat oven to 350F. Add 1 Tbsp. flour to oven bag. Brush turkey with vegetable oil or butter. Remove poultry from oven when meat thermometer reaches 180F. If using a Turkey Size oven bag for foods smaller than 12 lbs., gather oven bag loosely around food, allowing room for heat circulation, close with nylon tie and cut away excess oven bag.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:49 AM   #16
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Fish Cooking Times

Fish Cooking TimesFish cooking temperatures are important to monitor in order to insure meat is safely cooked to the proper temperature. When preparing fish, use the chart below as a guide to check doneness when the fish is oven baked, pan fried, deep fried, grilled, and steamed.
FISH Cooking Temperatures and TimesBakedApproximate Cooking TimePortionTemp.Weight /
Thickness
Total TimeWhole350F3-5 lbs35-40 minFillets350F3-5 lbs35-40 minSteaks350F3-5 lbs25-30 minPan FriedTurn OnceWholeMed. 8-15 minFilletsMed..75 in.7-9 minSteaksMed.1 in.9-10 minDeep Fried Whole350F 3-5 min

Fillets350F.75 in.3-5 minSteaks350F1 in.4-6 minGrilled - 4 in. from the Heat SourceTurn OnceWholeMed

10-20 minFilletsMed.75 in.10-20 minSteaksMed1 in.10-20 minSteaming - Over Gently Boiling Water Whole 10-12 minFillets .75 in.10-12 minSteaks 1 in.10-15 minNote: Cooking times are estimated times and will vary depending on the type and thickness of the fish. Fish is done when meat turns opaque white and has a flakey texture. Overcooking will cause the fish to be tough and lose flavor and moisture.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:50 AM   #17
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Slow-Cooker Conversion Chart

Slow-Cooker Conversion Chart When cooking with a slow-cooker, the cooking times will need to be lengthened in comparison to cooking in a conventional oven. Be sure to allow enough time for food to be cooked to proper doneness.
SLOW-COOKER CONVERSION This chart provides a conversion from conventional cooking times
to slow-cooker cooking times.
Conventional Oven
Cooking Time
Slow-Cooker Cooking TimeLow (200)High (300)15-30 min4-8 hrs

1 1/2 hrs30-40 min6-10 hrs3-4 hrs50 min-3 hrs8-18 hrs4-6 hrsMost uncooked meat/poultry and vegetable combinations will require at least 8 hours on low.
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:51 AM   #18
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Ingredient Equivalents

http://www.hormel.com/templates/know...emid=16&id=652
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:53 AM   #19
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Units of Measure

http://www.hormel.com/templates/know...sofmeasure.asp
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:57 AM   #20
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Food Substitutions

http://www.hormel.com/templates/know...temid=1&id=200
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